The aim is not the positive pursuit of pleasure but rather the absence of pain, a neutral state called ‘ataraxia’
The Buddha taught there are three main categories of dukkha
Dukkha is one of the three marks of existence, namely dukkha (“suffering”), anatta (not-self), anicca (“impermanence”).
Buddha (600 – 400BC)
Both Hinduism and Buddhism emphasize that one overcomes duḥkha through the development of understanding.
Hinduism emphasizes the understanding and acceptance of Atman (self, soul) and Brahman, while Buddhism emphasizes the understanding and acceptance of Anatta(Anatman, non-self, non-soul)
Two of the most influential forms are those of Aristotle and the Stoics. Aristotle takes virtue and its exercise to be the most important constituent in eudaimonia but acknowledges also the importance of external goods such as health, wealth, and beauty. By contrast, the Stoics make virtue necessary and sufficient for eudaimonia and thus deny the necessity of external goods.
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Zhuangzi (2500 BC)
Flow is the word we use today. Flow, also known as the zone. In essence, flow is characterized by complete absorption in what one does, and a resulting loss in one’s sense of space and time.